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Nmap Technique

  • Quick commands
  • -sC means connect scan
  • -sV means do version dection of port service
  • -oA means ouput to .nmap .gnmap and .xml formats to specified file
  • –top-ports you can specify 100,1000,10000
  • -oN <filename> export to a normal file(like nmaps normal output)
  • -sS syn scan

Initial Scan

nmap -oN scan.nmap -v -sS -sU -T5 –top-ports 1000

nmap -sC -sV -oA fighter

Scan top 10,000 ports

  • avg 134.74 seconds

nmap -oN scan.nmap -v -sS -sV –top-ports 1000

Using Vulners nse script

nmap -oN vulners.nmap -sV –version-intensity 9 –script vulners -p 80

Scan All ports

nmap -p- -T5 -oN all.nmap

Grep open ports

  • need nmap gerppable file

grep -oP ‘\d{1,5}/open’ scan.grep

Awk Open ports and pipe to new NMAP scan

  • -F ” |/” sets the field separator ie; 22/open
  • /open/ on any line that has “open” in it
  • {print $1} print the first field of that line ie; “22” if the line started with 22/open
  • {print \$NF”:”\$4} this would print the last field in the line followed by a colon and then the 4th field
  • ORS=”,” this replaces the newline chars with a comma putting all ports from an nmap scan into one line separated by commas
  • {print substr(\$1, 1, length(\$1)-1)} choose the line “\$1, 1,” and make it’s length the line itself minus one char “length(\$1)-1)}”
  • -I ‘{}’ Finally pipe to xargs with these params to store the line with now comma separated ports and feed into nmap

awk -F” |/” ‘/open/ {print $1}’ ORS=”,” scan.nmap | awk ‘{print substr($1, 1, length($1)-1)}’ | xargs -I ‘{}’ nmap -v -sV –version-intensity 9 –script vulners -p {}

Installing MDT 2013 for a Windows 10 2016 LTSB Deployment






Req: (MDT) 2013 Update 2 (6.3.8330) Version 8443 is needed to support the 1607 build of Win 10 which is used for LTSB 2016


Upgrading: MDT 2012 needs to become MDT2013 (An in place install can be done to upgrade after the ADK version is installed)




Req: ADK for Windows 10


If ADK for Windows 8.1 or older is installed(Uninstall first)


For LTSB 2016 Edition of Win 10 you will need the ADK for that version known as ADK for Version 1607




-use the cmd > set command and at the top it’ll tell you your build compare it to the chart in above link

GNS3 2.0 Remote Server with ESXI and Client Connection

Server Setup

Client Setup



So I’ve finally gotten around to setting up my ESXI server to be able to install GNS3 2.0 server and Client.

The client has an issue with Wireshark installation and so it is installed separately.
see the videos for the detais. Otherwise working nicely.

I will have to install the Cisco IOS images to use and hope fully get some Virtual Security appliances running!


Line Status

  • Administratively down – means shutdown command was issued on an interface
  • down – means either: no cable;bad cable;wrong cable pinouts;speed mismatch;neighbor device is off;error disabled by port security

Protocol Status

  • up – Interface is working
  • down – either: shutdown command issued;cable issue;speed mismatch;neigbor is off;
  • down(err-disabled) – port security disabled status

Interface Status

  • disabled – shutdown command was issued
  • notconnect – bad cable;speed mismatch;;no neigbor device;
  • connected – interface is working
  • err-disabled – disabled by port security


a-half – duplex was auto negotiated


-Seen in “show interfaces fa0/0” command

-most of these counters are seen incremented during half duplex networking although late collisions point to a duplex mismatch

  • Input Errors – A total of many counters, including runts, giants, no buffer, CRC, frame, overrun, and ignored counts.
  • Runts – frames that didn’t meet the Frame size requirements of 64 bytes + 18 byte dest MAC,source MAC,and FCS. Can be caused by collisions
  • Giants – Frames that exceed the max frame size of 1518 bytes including the 18 byte dest/src MACs and FCS fields
  • CRC – frames that don’t pass the FCS algorithm, likely cause of collisions or interference
  • frame – frames received that have illegal formats. ie; partial bytes. Likely cause of collisions
  • Packets Output – Total number of Frames that are forwarded out an interface
  • Output Errors – total number of frames that the port tried transmitting but for some reason had an issue
  • collisions – counter of all the collisions that have occurred when the interface is transmitting a frame
  • late collisions – collisions that happen after the 64th byte has been transmitted. Very likely pointing to duplex mismatch and would increment on the switch using half duplex


-from “show vlan brief” command

act/lshut —-means the vlan is shutdown


IPV6 Addressing

This article is a part of my CCNA course material I use for study that encompasses everything needed to know about IPV6 as a layer 3 protocol to help pass the CCNA v3 exam. It is also a final consolidation of notes on the subject with full video and lab demonstration link provided to help the reader and myself better understand the subject. This will be updated as new information is disseminated.

Why IPV6

IPV6 is the next generation protocol that solves the IPV4 exhaustion problem that is currently being held together by CIDR and NAT as discussed in the article for IPV4. IPV6 like IPV4 has a many similarities but also many new features like new address types that allow for enhanced network communication. For example IPV6 clients can auto generate a Link Local Address to begin talking to each other on the network without admin intervention. With 128bits of address equaling 70383400000000000003.4×1038 (340undecillion) addresses available to ipv6 this is like giving every atom on planet earth its own ip address 3x over. Now to sum up points for knowing everything needed on the CCNA see below.

Who made it

Registration with IANA > RIR(ARIN) > ISP > Your company ——must be made before using an ipv6 routable address/subnet. It will otherwise be dropped at some point in the routing process likely by the ISP or higher authority.


  • 128 bits >32 hexadecimal digits > 8 sets of 4 hex digits(quartet) > 4 bits per digit >16 bits per set

ie; 11aa.22bb.33cc.44dd.55ee.66ff.7777.8888

Rules for ease of use:

  1. Abbreviate Leading 0s NOT trailing 0s i.e.; FE00:0000:0000:0001:0000:0000:0000:0056 = FE00:0:0:1:0:0:0:56
  2. Abbreviate consecutive quartets of 0s with double colons but only once ie; FE00:0:0:1::56

Review of Hex Numbering

Hex Binary Hex Binary

0     0000     8 1000

1    0001    9 1001

2     0010    A(10) 1010

3    0011     B (11)1011

4     0100    C (12)1100

5 0101     D (13)1101

6    0110     E (14)1110

7 0111     F (15)1111

IPV6 Header:

4    Bytes:

  • version
  • class
  • flow label
  • payload length
  • next header
  • hop limit

32 bytes

  • source address – 16 bytes
  • destination address – 16 bytes

How it Works on Cisco Routers

When enabled on the router and on an interface (see below for commands):

  • enables routing of IPV6 packets
  • defines ipv6 prefix that will be used on that interface;
  • adds a connected route to the routing table when the interface is up/up

-Interfaces can have ipv6 link local and global addresses configured and in use on their interfaces with a special ipv6 enable command in the interface subcommand mode. They don’t need ipv6 enabled on the router necessarily

Dual Stack: Terminology used when routers run both ipv4 and ipv6 routing and use a separate Routing table for each

Address Types

Global Routing Prefix:

Closest thing similar to IPv4s classful networks but in this case the company is locked down to using the network mask assigned by the IPV6 authorities so there really is no classes the address block that can be assigned to a company for which can also be addressed to when reaching that company. The prefix should allow the company to basically assign as many addresses as needed and so provides for that many

ie; Host: 2001:0DB8:1111:0001:0000:0000:0000:0001/64——-this allows for 2^64 =18446744073709551616 hosts

prefix length: 2001:0DB8:1111/48-first 12 hex digits

Prefix ID: 2001:DB8:1111:1::/64-keep in mind that 16 bits are used to represent the subnet id allowing for 2^16=65536 subnets

next prefix id: 2001:DB8:1111:2::—–this will go on until the 4 hex digits all reach the max allowed 16 bits using the hex digit 15

final prefix id: 2001:DB8:1111:FFFF–

Prefix ID:(same as subnet ID)

ie; /64 is the first 16 hex characters of the 128 bit/32hex address

ie; 2000:1234:5678:9ABC::/64 is the Prefix ID of 2000:1234:5678:9ABC:1234:5678:9ABC:1111/64

Global Unicast Address:

  • Originally began with 2 or 3.
  • Any unicast addresses not specifically reserved are considered global unicast.
  • registered addresses with IANA that allow an organization to assign all their hosts public addresses
  • EUI 64: Extended unique identifier: is a method to generate a unique interface ID after custom making the prefix
  • -Inserts FFFE hex digits directly between the 12 hex MAC address of the interface to help make a unique 64 bit/16 hex address
  • -Finally the 7th bit in the new interface ID(in second hex digit) is inverted(if its 1 make 0 if its 0 make 1). Reading left to right keep in mind
  • -For serial interfaces without MAC addresses the router will use the MAC of the lowest numbered interface with a MAC

Unique Local Unicast Address:

  • Begin with FD 8bits > next 48 bits(10 hex) needs to be the global prefix(can randomly make this) > next 16 bits is the subnet field to be used >finally 64 bits for the hosts
  • RFC4193 requests that use of 8th bit should be 1 and so originally FC00::/7 is what IANA reserve
  • Assign a Global ID and Prefix ID(in this case everything is in control of the engineer except for the first 8bits which need to be FD)
  • Not registered and can be used any agency
  • like ipv4 private addresses don’t need registration

Link Local:

  • Begin with FE8;FE9;FEA;or;FEB
  • -First 10 bits need to match FE80::/10
  • -Next 54 bits need to be Binary 0s ie; FE80:0000:0000:0000/64
  • -Next 64 bits can use EUI-64 method to autogenerate; OR can be manually entered OR can use Microsofts Algorithym
  • Used for overhead protocols and for routing ie;NDP uses this type of address
  • Unicast address
  • Not forwarded by routers therefore only stays in the subnet locally
  • Also used as a next hop address by routers in the same subnet and as the default gateway for hosts
  • Automatically generated using EUI-64 when an interface is configured with any other ipv6 unicast address

Site Local Addresses:

  • No longer a part of the IPV6 standard begin with FEC;FED;FEE or FEF

Multicast Adddresses:

Configured when a corresponding protocol is enabled

Begin with:

  • FF02::1—-used to addres all ipv6 interfaces on the subnet
  • FF02::2—-used to address all ipv6 router interfaces on the subnet
  • FF02::5—-used to address all OSPFv3 Routers on the subnet
  • FF02::6—-used to address all OSPFv3 DR routers on the subnet
  • FF02::9—-used to address all RIPng Routers on the subnet
  • FF02::A—-used to address all EIGRPv6 routers on the subnet
  • FF02::1:2–used to address all DHCPv6 Relay agent Routers on the subnet

Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses

  • -first 104 bits begin with FF02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001:FF also written as FF02::1:FF
    • last 6 hex digits/24 bits of the ipv6 unicast address assigned to a host is filled into the last 24 bits of the address
  • ie; 2000:B71A:8560:AB73:816A:BE81:AB71:FF01 solicited node = FF02::1:FF71:FF01
  • -Link Local
  • -Some nodes might have the same adddress and overlap on this address
  • -All hosts listen for packets sent to this address
  • -Used for the reason of addressing overlapped hosts using the same solicited node address

Anycast Addresses

  • Begin With: These addresses can be any unicast address; Must use a host mask of /128 and are specified as anycast aaddresses in the ios
  • Provide a service that may be spread among different routers/devices but is used to contact the nearest device when the service is called upon by a host

Subnet Router Any Cast Addresses:

  • Used by routers to send packets to any other router on the subnet
  • contains same prefix and all binary 0s for the interface ID

Unknown/unspecified Address:

  • :: or all 0s
  • Used as the source ip address when a host doesn’t know its address ie; in the case of using dhcp

Loopback address:

  • ::1 or 127
  • used to test the ipv6 stack

IOS Commands

  • ipv6 unicast-routing———–In Global configuration Mode; enables ipv6 packet forwarding routing —–ACTUALLY ENABLES IPV6 ROUTING without this command the router will still act as an ipv6 host for its interfaces but won’t route ipv6 packets
  • int <type> <#/#>————choose interface to configure and enter commands below from interface subcommand mode
    • ipv6 enable ———this will simply enable ipv6 on the interface and generate its link local address. Good for simple WAN link connections since they only need to use link local address to route packets across their network
    • ipv6 address 2001:0db8:1111:0002:0000:0000:0000:0001/64——-example Ipv6 address completely written out
    • ipv6 address 2001:0:1:1::1/64—————example of an ipv6 assigned address(DONT forget the double colon syntax at the end of every address;;;Also feel free to remove leading 0s). This will also automatically assign a link local address
    • ipv6 address 2001:DB8:1111:1::/64 eui-64——example of using the eui method which takes the MAC and insert FFFE in the middle and inverts 7th bit to create the 64 bit host ID
    • ipv6 address <address> link-local ——manually assigning the link local address

Video(coming soon)

Resetting forgotten password with Trinity Rescue Kit

In  a home environment I have always used and been able to rely upon Trinity Rescue Kit. If your working in an enterprise environment this won’t work on Domain Accounts but if you for some reason don’t have any access at all to the PC you can at least reset the administrator’s password and get in. If I don’t even need to get in to retrieve any information I would just re-image the PC and not bother getting in but in case you need something here is the tool.

Its free and really easy to use.

  1. Download it from this link
  2. You will get an ISO image and just burn it to CD since it is most likely your PC has a cd player. If not then you will have to make a bootable USB drive with it and boot using USB if your PC doesn’t use a CD player. This tutorial is for use of the CD version but if you need to make a bootable USB drive I like using this little tool called YUMI
  3. Boot into your TRK disc and Choose the Interactive WinPass option and then choose option 1 to select your Windows Installment and list its users.
  4. Type in the name of the user you want to clear a password for and your done!(See video for details)


Downloading Music/Audio From Youtube with Windows

So we like playing music in the car or wherever we are from our phone using youtube. Now lets instead just download our music before-hand and not use our costly phone’s bandwidth! On top of this we just want to download the audio since it is a much smaller file size and will take up little room.

Tool Needed:

Back to my favorite online video downloader: Youtube-dl – This is our simple command line tool we will run in the command prompt to grab our videos with. I have written a previous post on this on how to use it please check that out on figuring out how it’s used.

Downloading Youtube Videos Instead of Streaming on Phone


  1. Grab the URL for your video

Where to grab the URL from the youtube Video:


Once you have that simply run this in the command line(cmd.exe)to download the audio only.

youtube-dl –extract-audio <Enter URL of video>



Final note: Keep in mind it will download to your working directory so in the case above the file was downloaded to my user profile folder.

That’s it. Just upload it to your phone and jam it out in the car!

-Bolivian Gene

Search And Delete Emails in Exchange2013

This is a quick  blogged guide for administrators who need to delete an email from their organization for some reason or another. In my case this was due to a cryptolocker like virus outbreak called Cerber.

The Task: Find the emails and delete them from the system to prevent further incidents from popping up making more work for us because we always have to re-image and physically replace the machines in some cases not to mention user downtime.

First Step:

First we want to be able to locate and identify the emails targeted for deletion. In my case we received the payload from this address: (first just want to say .ru its Russian!) we should never open emails like this but users will still go for it. There are several ways to find where the emails went and find out who read them and so on and this is what we will do going off this address.

Options for Searching: Exchange Powershell OR Exchange E-Discovery Gui

I’ll use both normally. In many cases if the search involves gathering emails it is easiest for me to just run an E-discovery search and shoot them over into a PST file. In the case of deletions though we want to use the Powershell since it is the only way as of now that I know of to delete emails from the system and user mailboxes in mass action.

-So log into your Exchange server as the Exchange Admin or verify you have proper rights to run search commands(ref:


then open the Exchange Management Shell and we can now use the following commands to search for our items with the matching email address.

Get-mailbox -ResultSize unlimited | Search-Mailbox -SearchQuery “” Targetmailbox adminuser -TargetFolder “SearchAndDeleteLog” -LogOnly -LogLevel Full

-This command first grabs all mailboxes within the Organization then pipes it to our search function using the “|” symbol. In our Search operation we “Searh-Mailbox -Search Query” so here we will then specifcy with the “From:” text to find our matching address. The command then follows up with a “target” mailbox and user to send a report of the results. In my case I’m sending it to my adminuser’s mailbox under the “SearchAndDeleteLog” I created for it.SearchAndDeleteLog

Here is a guide to other parameters I might use when running the search. We can use things like Subject line or Dates and get fairly specific. Keep in mind it is using KQL language which is the same syntax used in e-Discovery. Use this guide to have an idea of what search parameters you can use for the -SearchQuery:

Once you receive the results you like you can then move on to delete them. with the following command:

Get-mailbox -ResultSize unlimited | Search-Mailbox -SearchQuery “”  -DeleteContent

This command will basically gather the results and delete them from the mailboxes. You will be asked to say yes to all deletions from each mailbox.

I advise running a backup on anything before deleting it but since this is virus in the email we clean our hands of it.

The Cerber File Encrypting Virus

Screen Shots:

CerberRansom1Ran into this bad boy today. I was reviewing the code from the github dump i found  here:

I was concerned that it worked on also infecting file shares but from what I can see it doesn’t touch them. After having a user infect a computer here in our Network it looks like nothing else has been touched but all the files on her computer displaying messages like this:

Cerber Virus

Every file basically encrypted until you pay the son of aguns.

Basic Steps on handling this type of problem:

  1. Verify none of your other networked file shares have been infected and run a full virus scan of the shares just to be safe. So far I haven’t heard of Cerber jumping to any networked shares so it keeps things local to the machine which means it is mainly targeting end users. Here is a snip of Code from the above link that leads me to believe it is only keeping things local since it’s the only reference to any directories it makes:                         “folders”: [
    “:\\$recycle.bin\\”,”: \\$windows.~bt\\”,
    “:\\boot\\”,”: \\drivers\\”,
    “:\\program files\\”,”: \\program files (x86)\\”,
    “:\\programdata\\”,”: \\users\\all users\\”,
    “\\public\\music\\sample music\\”,”\\public\\pictures\\sample pictures\\”,
    “\\public\\videos\\sample videos\\”,”\\tor browser\\
  2. Next step is to Burn the infected machine(Just re-image it) Users might ask for the files in which case they can pay the ransom if it’s that important. Something like 2 bit coins or $500 if you pay up before it doubles on you every week. One other thing users have asked me is if they can at least see the files they lost in which case your going to be taking a picture of the computer screen because there’s no safe bets I would take making any kind of digital bridge to that computer(ie: plugging in a usb stick or taking a snapshot to transfer to a usb Stick)
  3. Final step is replace the users PC and restore their files. That is if you back them up!


Confirmed with Talos Security group that this is not de-cryptable as of yet